The lung (Latin pulmo) is the organ responsible for respiration. When inhaling the body takes oxygen (O2), while exhaling carbon dioxide (CO2). Both humans and numerous vertebrates, and even some fish species, have lungs for oxygen uptake.
The two lungs are located in the human chest. During chest breathing, one can observe how the chest lifts when inhaled and lowers when exhaling. The upper end of the lungs protrudes about two centimeters from the key. Under the lung is the diaphragm, the most important muscle for breathing. In respiratory rest position, the lungs are approximately at the level of the sixth rib on the front side, the lung ends laterally at the eighth rib, and on the back the edge of the lung borders on the tenth rib. Because of the oblique neckline of the diaphragm, both lungs are slightly crooked in the body.
Structure / anatomy of the lung
Since the human lung consists of two conical parts (left and right lung), it is a paired organ. The right lung is divided by furrows into three lung lobes, while the left lung is divided by the furrows into only two lobes of the lung. The left lung consists of an upper and lower lobe. These lobes can in turn be broken down into individual lung segments. There are ten segments in the right lung and only nine in the left. Because the heart is on the left side of the body, the left lung is not quite as big as the right one.
The pleura covers the surface of the respiratory organ, while the pleura covers the chest wall. Both membranes (lung pleura and pleura) are collectively referred to as pleura. There is a liquid between the lung and the pleura, which makes it possible to glide smoothly against each other.
In an adult human, the internal surface of the organ is between 50 and 80 square meters.
Function of the lungs
The human organism needs oxygen in order to be able to extract energy from the supplied food at all. This process is also referred to as the respiratory chain, at the end of which the body produces the universal energy source adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
In the left and right lung are around the bronchioles around 300 million pulmonary alveoli. The oxygen from the inhaled air diffuses through the membranes of the pulmonary alveoli, at the same time carbon dioxide diffuses out and is released with the exhaled breath. Per breath, the lungs can absorb about 1/5 of the inhaled oxygen.
Breathing happens automatically without us having to concentrate on it. In the brain, the responsible respiratory center is located in the so-called medulla oblongata in the brain stem. One adult breathes at rest between 15-18 times per minute; Babies and newborns with 30-45 breaths per minute much faster.